Canada (IPA: /ˈkænədə/) is a country occupying most of northern North America, extending from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is the world's second largest country by total area, and shares land borders with the United States to the south and northwest.
The lands have been inhabited for millennia by aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored and later settled the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal, semi-autonomous polity. This began an accretion of additional provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom, highlighted by the Statute of Westminster in 1931 and culminating in the Canada Act in 1982 which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.
A federation now comprising ten provinces and three territories, Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual and multicultural country, with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. Technologically advanced and industrialized, Canada maintains a diversified economy that is heavily reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade — particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a long and complex relationship.
- Official website of the Government of Canada
- Official website of the Prime Minister of Canada
- Official website of the Governor General of Canada
- Official website of the Canadian Forces
- Official Government of Canada online Atlas of Canada
- Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations
- Crown corporations
- Culture.ca - Canada's Cultural Gateway
- Culturescope.ca - Canadian Cultural Observatory
- Canadian Studies: A Guide to the Sources
- Statistics Canada with Canada's population clock
- The Canadian Atlas Online
- Canada at The World Factbook
- UN Human Development Program: Country Fact Sheet: Canada, Statistics - Country Sheet: Canada